Phillip D. Smith* and Ruizhong Shen Pages 28 - 35 ( 8 )
The mucosal surfaces of the genital and gastrointestinal tracts are the routes by which HIV-1 is acquired, excluding persons infected parenterally. Identification of the mucosal target cells and the receptors by which HIV-1 enters these cells is fundamental to elucidating the biology of HIV-1 transmission. The mucosal target cells include epithelial cells, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, CD4+ T-cells, macrophages and even mast cells, but the contribution of each cell type is highly dependent on the mucosal surface - genital versus gastrointestinal. Importantly, mucosal target cells may also play key roles in the immunobiology and latency of HIV-1 infection. Given the pivotal role of mucosal cells in HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis, an effective vaccine to bring the HIV-1 pandemic under control must be effective at the level of the key target cells in both the genital and gastrointestinal mucosae.
Mucosal HIV-1, epithelial cell, macrophage, T-cell, dendritic cell, mast cell.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL