Pamela A. Kozlowski and Anna Aldovini* Pages 102 - 122 ( 21 )
Optimal protective immunity to HIV will likely require that plasma cells, memory B cells and memory T cells be stationed in mucosal tissues at portals of viral entry. Mucosal vaccine administration is more effective than parenteral vaccine delivery for this purpose. The challenge has been to achieve efficient vaccine uptake at mucosal surfaces, and to identify safe and effective adjuvants, especially for mucosally administered HIV envelope protein immunogens. Here, we discuss strategies used to deliver potential HIV vaccine candidates in the intestine, respiratory tract, and male and female genital tract of humans and nonhuman primates. We also review mucosal adjuvants, including Toll-like receptor agonists, which may adjuvant both mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV protein immunogens.
HIV, SIV, nonhuman primates, mucosal adjuvants, rectal, vaginal, oral, nasal immunization TLR agonists, vaccine vectors, delivery vehicles.
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, Department of Medicine, and Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Boston MA, 02115